Aims and coverage
The Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal (biij)
is an open access multidisciplinary peer-reviewed quarterly
online journal, published by the Department of Biomedical
Imaging, University of Malaya, Malaysia. biij
is a multidisciplinary journal covering all the clinical and
technical aspects of biomedical imaging and intervention,
radiotherapy and oncology, minimally invasive image guided
therapy, image processing and informatics, molecular medicine,
medical physics and radiobiology as well as radiography and
bioengineering related to imaging or intervention.
To promote the science and art of biomedical imaging and
intervention among the physicians and allied professional
for the betterment of the public health.
- To provide clinicians and allied professionals with continuing
education in basic and clinical sciences related to biomedical
imaging and intervention to ensure that informed decisions
- To enable clinicians and allied professionals to remain
informed in the multiple areas of biomedical imaging and intervention
including developments in fields other than their own
- To improve health and health care internationally by elevating
the quality of screening, diagnosis, therapy and prognostication
in areas related to biomedical imaging and intervention
- To maintain the highest standards of editorial integrity
independent of any special interests
- To publish original, important, well-documented, peer-reviewed
articles on a diverse range of biomedical imaging and interventional
- To foster responsible and balanced debate on issues related
to biomedical imaging and intervention
- To anticipate important issues and trends in biomedical
imaging and intervention
- To inform readers about issues including the management,
leadership, political, philosophic, ethical, legal, environmental,
economic, historical, as well as the cultural aspects that
relate to biomedical imaging and intervention
- To recognize that, in addition to these specific objectives,
biij has a social responsibility to improve the total human
condition and to promote the integrity of science through
advancements in biomedical imaging and intervention
- To achieve the highest level of ethical medical journalism
and to produce a publication that is timely, credible, and
enjoyable to read
All materials submitted to biij must be
original work, and may not have been published elsewhere.
biij also accepts review articles reflect
practical everyday clinical applications geared to the practicing
clinicians, scientists, other allied professionals, and these
may cover clinical management, applications of a particular
imaging modality, imaging of specific anatomic, disease states,
clinical problems as well as administration, technical, or
biij is an international multidisciplinary open access journal
and is available online to the public in electronic format
at www.biij.org. Both full-text
HTML and PDF versions of articles are available.
In view of the need to look at the scientific basis of research
projects, we are prepared to review research proposals to
ensure both the scientific and research basis for research
biij now uses an online submission and manuscript tracking system, available at http://www.biij.org/system/. To submit your paper, please register as an author (in your user profile) and go to the author home page.
You will then be guided through the submission process. You may upload your manuscript as an .rtf or .doc file, as well as supplementary files such as figures, program codes, video clips, animations, and other multimedia files. Upon submission, you will receive an automatic email acknowledging receipt of your paper. If you do not receive a response within 24 hours, please verify that the paper has been submitted (using the manuscript tracking system).
Please note that all submissions must be accompanied by Author Contribution Form, uploaded as a supplementary file. Each author must complete a separate Author Contribution Form.
A typical page usually contains 1000 words of text or 4 average
size tables or 6 average size figures or 40 references. The
average handling time to publish a paper, including peer-review,
is 4 months and this excludes author revision time.
Note that e-mail submissions will no longer be accepted, unless for exceptional cases approved by the Editorial Board.
Please contact the Managing Editor at email@example.com for any queries regarding the submission of your paper.
Submission or publication charges: biij DO NOT charge the authors for submitting or publishing with the journal. Please contact the Managing Editor if you need further information.
All submitted manuscripts will undergo peer-review. Each
manuscript shall be allocated two reviewers who will receive
the manuscripts with blind title pages to ensure an unbiased
review. Every effort is made to ensure that the reviewers
provide detailed constructive comments in the shortest time
to assist the authors in getting their work published. Every
effort is taken to ensure that the reviews are fair and thorough.
The Editors will make a final decision on each manuscript
which shall be classified as:
- Acceptable for publication in present form
- Acceptable for publication but suggest that author(s) consider
the accompanying comments before submitting final copies
Acceptable for publication provided the paper is revised in
accordance with the accompanying comments
- Not acceptable, but should be reconsidered for publication
after revision along the lines indicated in the accompanying
- Not acceptable, but material might be suitable for another
- Not acceptable
It is strongly advised that when revisions are requested,
all points raised by the reviewers must be answered by the
authors on a separate sheet, and returned with the revised
manuscript. In the event of any disagreement with any specific
reviewers' recommendations, authors are free to explain their
reasoning when resubmitting their paper.
of paper accepted
Original Research Papers
"Full length" paper,
reporting scientific investigation of significant issue. Involves
appropriate literature review, full discussion of results,
implications and shortcomings.
Cover specific, sometimes controversial, subjects that are
currently hot topics, even those raised at specialty scientific
meetings. The author should provide a brief explanation of
the current position; followed by an outline the various viewpoints
that exist, and then expound his/her own particular view point
or analysis of the situation. Future perspectives of the situation
should also be stated. Commentaries should be approximately
800-2500 words. May contain no more than 6 references.
Short Communications/Technical Reports
This category includes work-in-progress, short reports, and
technical notes. These communications should aim to be as
concise as possible and should not include more than 12 references.
"How I Do It" Articles
The article should contain an abstract (Objective and Conclusion)
of no more than 75 words, followed by an introduction which
defines the scope of the paper. The main body will cover the
technical aspects of the procedure. Headings may be used to
separate and organise text.
Proffered review articles and suggestions for such material
are usually solicited by the Honorary Editors.
These aim to provide an up-to-date visual portrayal of any
issue especially those with important educational content.
The pictorial review may be based on a poster presentation
at a scientific meeting. No more
than 8 key references should be included. There should be
no more than 3 authors.
Case reports should provide a brief description of a case
with unique features that have been previously unreported.
References should be limited to 8 and there may
not be more than 3 authors.
Expert Slide Presentations
These aim to provide online access to educational material
used at any of the conferences or scientific meetings. These
may either be in the form of digital video recording or in
MS PowerPoint which will then be converted to PDF files.
Letters to the Editor
May fall into one of the three categories: A letter on any
matter of interest to readers of the BIIJ; a response to an
issue that may have appeared in the media, raised at conferences,
practices, etc; a response to an article that has appeared
in a previous issue of BIIJ. This will be forwarded to the
authors of that article to allow them to reply. If accepted,
the letters will be published together. Tables and figures
should not be included, unless absolutely necessary. All the
authors of a letter to the editor are required to sign it.
These aim to provide summaries of the currently available
books or other monographs that may be of interest to the audiences
For all papers submitted, the following requirements apply:
- Only papers written in English are accepted
- No hard-copy submissions will be accepted
- Manuscripts should be submitted as a formatted MS Word
- The manuscripts are submitted as a single MS Word document
with the information in the following order: abbreviated
title page, abstract, text, appendix, references, tables
(embedded), and captions
- The manuscript should be typed in double line spacing,
with margins of at least 25 mm on each side
- Text should be Times New Roman, font size 12
- Figures and Tables should be provided and labeled as separate
files and should not embedded within the main text
- Figures should be submitted in digital format using JPEG
or TIFF format (see section on Figures for further details)
- The authors' names or affiliations should not appear anywhere
on the manuscript pages or the images to ensure that the
peer-review is blinded
- Authors are encouraged to ensure that their files are
clear of any viruses
- A cover letter, signed by all the authors with the telephone
and fax numbers of the corresponding author, plus email
address must be provided
- Corresponding authors are responsible for obtaining the
approval of all co-authors regarding any subsequent revisions
to a paper. The type of paper being submitted should also
The title page should provide the following information:
- Title of the paper. The use of abbreviations should not
be used in the title
- Category of paper other than original research paper should
- Names of the authors should comprise: initials, surnames
plus qualifications (not more than three qualifications per
author) along with the address(es) where the work reported
in the paper was undertaken and linked to the appropriate
author(s) using superscript numerals
- In the event of a change in the address of the corresponding
author, the current address may be included as a footnote,
again linked to the relevant name by an asterisk
- Footnotes stating a conference or meeting where any part
of portion of the paper was presented should be included
- Footnotes stating any source of funding or financial interest
where relevant must be stated. This includes actual, potential
or potential conflicts of interest by any of the authors
- The order of the names of the authors shall be decided
prior to submission. The editors will not entertain any
subsequent requests for change once the paper has been submitted
Blind title page
To ensure a fair and honest peer review process a "blind"
title page should be included after the main title page, giving
only the title without the authors' names and affiliations.
Further do not include the name of the institution where the
work was performed or authors' names or initials, either within
the text or at the top of each manuscript page.
The abstract should be typed on a separate page as a single
paragraph except for separate section headings for the original
research paper. The abstract should be an accurate and concise
synopsis of the paper, and should not exceed 250 words. No
references should be quoted.
For the original research paper, the abstract must be divided
into four paragraphs with the following headings:
- Purpose State the hypothesis being tested
or the procedure being evaluated.
- Materials and methods Briefly
state what was done and what materials were used, including
number of subjects. Also include the methods used to assess
the data and to control bias, along with the statistical
- Results Provide the findings of
the study, including indicators of statistical significance.
Include actual numbers, as well as percentages
- Conclusion Summarize in one or
two sentences the conclusion(s), based solely on the data
An abstract of 100 words or less must be submitted for each
Case Report or Short communication/technical report. The abstract
must state (a) what was done, (b) what was found, and (c)
what was concluded, but specific headings should not be included.
For commentaries/editorials, or other similar submissions,
an abstract of 100-200 words should summarise the content
of the submission, but specific headings should not be included.
The main body of a paper should begin on the page following
There are no stringent rules regarding the use of specific
headings, but the general guideline is to organize text to include
the following sections:
- Avoid repetition between sections.
- Abbreviations and acronyms may be used where appropriate,
but must always be defined where first used.
- The names and locations (town, country) of manufacturers of
all equipment and non-generic drugs must be given.
- For the purposes of clarity, up to three clearly differentiated
levels of subheading may be used.
- Avoid the use of footnotes.
- Introductory section
- Briefly describe the pertinent background information
and references that inform the reader as to why you
undertook your stdy.
- An extensive literature is not necessary.
- The final paragraph of this section should clearly
state the hypothesis or purpose of your study.
- Brevity and focus are important.
- It is generally recommended that Introduction should
not exceed 1½ double-spaced page.
- Methods and materials/patients:
- The aim of the study should be clearly described
and a suitable design, incorporating an appropriate
number of subjects, should be used to accomplish the
- For human studies, it is essential to state in the
first paragraph whether or not ethical clearance and
patient informed consent were obtained. This applies
for both prospective and retrospective studies.
- In the case of animal experiments, a statement regarding
approval by the institutional animal care committee
or appropriate substitute should be provided.
- The number and selection of the subjects studied
(patients or experimental animals, including controls)
must be clearly stated.
- Details of on inclusion and exclusion criteria should
be clearly stated and reason for them
- Information on subject characteristics in groups
being compared should be given for any factors that
could potentially bias the comparison of the groups;
such information is often best presented in a tabular
format in which the groups are in adjacent columns
- It should also be clear as to the retrospective or
prospective nature of your study.
- In the event of the study being randomized, details
of the randomization procedure should be included.
- The methods, instrumentation (trade names and manufacturer’s
name and location in parentheses), and procedures must
be identified in sufficient detail to allow other workers
to reproduce the study.
- It is essential that the manner in which studies
were evaluated i.e. independent readings, consensus
readings, blinded or unblinded to other information,
time sequencing between readings of several studies
of the same patient or animal to eliminate recall bias,
random ordering of studies or otherwise be clearly defined
- Give references to established methods, including
statistical methods that have been published but are
not well known; describe new or substantially modified
methods and give reasons for using these techniques.
- Briefly state the statistical methods used to analyze
your data. It is strongly recommended that all authors
seek statistical consultation prior to planning a study
to ensure that collection of data and the statistical
tests to analyze those data are appropriate especially
in studies related to cost analysis or cost-effectiveness.
- In the event of any discrepancy the editors reserve
the right to request the raw data to recalculate the
- Results should be presented in a clear logical sequence.
- Any exclusions or losses to follow-up that might
affect the study population are required to be stated
- When tables are used, do not duplicate tabular data
in the text, but do describe important trends and points
- Summarize only important observations, and do not
repeat in the text all the data in the tables and/or
- Make sure to give results for all items evaluated
mentioned in Materials and Methods section
- State the statistical significance of your findings.
- Numerators and denominators must be provided either
in the text or the tables for all percentages given.
The same applies to sensitivity, specificity, accuracy,
and positive and negative predictive values.
- When using subheadings in Materials and Methods,
it may be helpful to present the results in the same
sequence using the same subheadings.
- Discussion and Conclusion
- Emphasize the advances in knowledge provided by your
study and the conclusions that follow from them.
- Detail data given in the results section should not
be repeated unless it used to compare with the results
of other studies.
- The implications of the findings as well as their
limitations, in particular with reference to the use
of modified methods, statistical or otherwise should
- Also link the conclusions with the objectives of
the study, but unqualified statements and conclusions
not supported entirely the data should be avoided.
- In addition reporting on the results of any ongoing
investigations, not yet completed is not advised.
- Recommendations, with necessary conditions, when
appropriate, may be included.
- Potential future practical applications should be
discussed when related to experimental studies, animal
- Acknowledgments (if relevant).
- This should be written on a separate page, with references
in numerical order corresponding to the order in which they
appear in the text.
- It is the responsibility of authors to determine the
accuracy of the references.
- Cite only those papers closely related to the work
and exhaustive lists should be avoided.
- All references must appear both in the text and the
- References should follow the Vancouver format.
- In the text, references are cited in numerical order as numerals
in square brackets. Within the brackets, numerals are separated
by commas, and three or more consecutive references are given
as ranges, e.g. [1, 2, 7, 10–12, 14].
- A reference cited in a table or figure caption counts as being
cited where the table or figure is first mentioned in the text.
- Papers in press may be included in the list of references.
- Abstracts and/or papers presented at meetings not
in the public domain should not be cited. Neither should uncompleted
work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication
- The use of private communications should be given
only in the text with the author and year should be provided
in brackets. No reference number need to be given.
- The name of ALL authors of the reference must be listed.
- When abbreviations for titles of medical periodicals
are used, then these should conform to those used in the latest
edition of Index Medicus.
- If in doubt, please consult the sample references list set out by ICMJE Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, available at:
Examples of references:
- Journal article Include author
names and initials, paper title, abbreviated journal title,
year of publication, volume number, and first and last page
numbers of paper, e.g.
Lenconi R, Goletti O, Armillotta, A. Radio-frequency
thermal ablation of liver metastases with a cooled tip electrode:
results of a pilot trial. Eur Radiol 1998;8:1205-1211
- Complete book This should include
authors'/Editors' names, title of the book, city/country
of publication as well as the publisher name, plus year
of publication, e.g.
Weast RC, Astle MJ, Beyer WH, eds. CRC handbook of chemistry
and physics, 64th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1983.
- Chapter in book Include authors
of the relevant chapter, title of chapter, followed by "In:
" and editors' names, title of book, town/country of
publication and publisher name, year of publication, and
first and last page numbers of material cited, e.g.
Wray-Cahen D, Vossoughi J, Karanian JW. Large animal models
in pre-clinical trials. In: Vossoughi J, Kipshidze N, Karanian
JW, eds. Stent graft update. Washington, DC: Medical and
Engineering Publishing, 2000;201–214.
- Conference proceedings Include
names of editors, title of publication, title of meeting,
date and location of meeting, town/country of publication
and publisher name, and year of publication, e.g.
Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.
- Conference paper Include author(s)
and title of paper followed by "In:" and the details
of the Conference Proceedings in which it appears, e.g.
Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 182-91.
- Internet Include author(s), title of article, URL, and accessed date, e.g.
Keller M, Hughes KF, Pethig R. Evidence based radiology [Web Page]. Available at http://www.evidencebasedradiology.net/ebr_practice/ebr_practice.html (Accessed 14 July 2004).
- All tables should be referred to specifically in the
text of the paper but provided as a separate.
- Tables should be numbered consecutively using Arabic
numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.), in the order in which they appear
in the text
- There should be a short descriptive title after the
- They should be self-explanatory and aim for maximum
clarity with no duplication data.
- All columns and rows are properly aligned with appropriate
space between rows and columns
- Include horizontal rules at the top and bottom of
a table and one below the column headings. If a column heading
encompasses two or more subheadings, then the main headings
and subheadings should be separated by a single short rule.
No other rules should be included, neither horizontal nor
- Footnotes may used if necessary provided that they
are referred to within the table by superscript letters. Begin
each footnote on a new line.
- To allow faster review, all abbreviations in tables
should be defined in footnotes even if defined in the text
or a previous table.
Figures should be referred to specifically in the text of
the paper. They should be numbered consecutively using Arabic
Repetition of material from the text should be avoided. The
use of any abbreviations used in figures should also be clearly
defined in the caption.
- Image files should only be supplied in EPS, TIFF or JPEG
- Images in PowerPoint files should not be used as these
cause problems with respect to quality rendering
- Image files supplied in Word or Excel will also not be
accepted. Other formats will not be usable.
- EPS is preferred for drawn artwork (line drawings and
graphs) and should be submitted with a preview file along
with all the fonts attached.
- TIFF is preferred for halftones, or grey scale images
i.e. medical images such as radiographs, MR scans, etc.
- For JPEG files, it is essential to save at maximum quality,
i.e. “10”, to ensure that image quality is satisfactory
when the files are eventually decompressed.
- Each figure should be saved as a separate file named
“Figure 1”, “Figure 2” etc.
- Each figure should have a detailed but concise legend
listed on a separate page e.g. list of legends.
- Authors’ names and affiliations do not appear anywhere
on the images
- Any manipulations or enhancements of the images beyond
grey-scaling should be clearly stated. If an image has been
enhanced electronically, explain the alterations that have
been made and send an original image along with the enhanced
- Images to be combined into one array, such as postero-anterior
and lateral views, should be sized the same to facilitate
- When several images of a given type (e.g., CT, MR, US)
are being shown, please reproduce each specific type at
the same magnification.
- Images should correspond in appearance to the tonal relations
of the original radiograph (i.e., showing the bones white
on a dark background, with the patient’s right to
the observer’s left
- CT scans and MR images should employ the “view from
- Drawings and graphs should be rendered professionally
in black and white.
- Image files should be saved at the appropriate dpi (dots
per inch) for the type of graphic (the typical screen value
of 72 dpi will not yield satisfactory printed results).
Lower resolutions will not be usable.
- All line drawings should be digitised or scanned at 1200
- Halftone and colour work should be digitised or scanned
at 300 dpi, TIFF
- Combination halftones (image and line art) should be
600 dpi, TIFF.
- Digital images with labels should be submitted with the
labels on layers. Do not flatten image or merge layers.
- Each image's file size will typically range from 1.5
MB to 10 MB
- All files must be accompanied by two (2) sets of label
prints marked for orientation.
- Images should preferably be submitted as a zipped file
- biij is not responsible for failed media,
conversions, or transmissions.
- The image should be cropped to show just the relevant
area (i.e. no more than is necessary to illustrate the points
made by the author whilst retaining sufficient anatomical
- The amount of white space around the illustration should
be kept to a minimum.
- Illustrations should be supplied at the size they are
to be printed, usually 76 mm wide (across a single column
of text) or for especially large figures, a 161 mm (across
two columns of text). The intermediate width of 100 mm is
also available should neither of these suffice.
- Annotations, e.g. arrows, should be used to indicate
subtle but salient points. All annotations should be included
within the images supplied.
- Patient identification must be obscured.
- No box should be placed around graphs, diagrams or other
- Background gridlines should be avoided unless these are
essential (e.g. confidence limits).
- All units of measurement must be demonstrated on axes.
- All lines (e.g. graph axes) should have a minimum width
of 1 pt weight.
- Avoid using tints (solid black and white or variations
of crosshatching are preferred), but any tints that are
used must be at a minimum 5% level to print (but do not
use too high a tint as it may print too dark).
- Do not use three-dimensional histograms when the addition
of a third dimension gives no further information.
Authors are discouraged from including appendices if the material
can be included in the main text.
The Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal endorses and conforms to the following statements made by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ("Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals") -- February 2006:
"Public trust in the peer review process and the credibility of published articles depend in part on how well conflict of interest is handled during writing, peer review, and editorial decision making. Conflict of interest exists when an author (or the author's institution), reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships that inappropriately influence (bias) his or her actions (such relationships are also known as dual commitments, competing interests, or competing loyalties). These relationships vary from those with negligible potential to those with great potential to influence judgment, and not all relationships represent true conflict of interest. The potential for conflict of interest can exist whether or not an individual believes that the relationship affects his or her scientific judgment. Financial relationships (such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony) are the most easily identifiable conflicts of interest and the most likely to undermine the credibility of the journal, the authors, and of science itself. However, conflicts can occur for other reasons, such as personal relationships, academic competition, and intellectual passion."
"Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that a patient who is identifiable be shown the manuscript to be published. Authors should identify Individuals who provide writing assistance and disclose the funding source for this assistance.
Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve, however, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note.
The requirement for informed consent should be included in the journal's instructions for authors. When informed consent has been obtained it should be indicated in the published article."
"When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (5). If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach, and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should be asked to indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed."
The complete statements relating to the conduct and reporting of research as outlined in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication may be accessed at www.icmje.org.
In addition, biij also upholds the Editorial Policy Statements made by the Council of Science Editors (CSE) that cover the responsibilities and rights of editors of peer-reviewed journals. The full policy statements may be read at the CSE website.
21 July 2013
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