e-Learning development in medical physics and engineering
Department of Medical Engineering and Physics, King�s
College Hospital, London, United Kingdom
Medical Physics and Engineering was among the first
professions to develop and apply e-Learning (e-L). The profession provides
excellent background for application of simulations and other e-L materials.
The paper describes several layers for e-L development: Programming specific simulations; Building e-L modules;
Development of e-L web-based programmes. The paper shows examples from
these layers and outlines their specificities. At the end, the newest e-L
development (project EMITEL) is briefly introduced and the necessity of a
regularly updated list of e-L activities is emphasised. � 2008 Biomedical
Imaging and Intervention Journal. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Medical Physics; e-Learning; education
Medical Physics and Engineering (MEP) was among the first
professions to develop and apply e-Learning (e-L). An indicator for this is the
first international prize in the field (EU Leonardo da Vinci Award) presented to
European Medical Imaging Technology (EMIT) Consortium in 2004.
During the last 15 years, a number of activities and
publications addressed the questions of MEP Education and Training [1, 2, 3,
4]. These led to rapid development of the profession worldwide and now the next
stage of e-L is to be addressed. A special issue on the subject was published
by the Journal of Medical Engineering and Physics in 2005 . Based on the
paper and on the authors� 12 years� experience in e-L, the following
key-elements can be specified for the introduction and use of e-L in MEP:
- e-L is imperative for MEP because it offers quick and easy update of
teaching materials � a very important function for this dynamic profession. This,
combined with the fast delivery of the content through Internet, makes e-L
materials the first choice for many lecturers;
- e-L proposes an elegant way to solve the problem through the
understanding of complex physics models. Using interactive simulations,
computer diagrams or images leads to increased effectiveness of the learning
- Images are specifically important for MEP and e-L provides a cheap and
effective means for publishing large number of images (either on CD or through
the Web). Additionally e-L can offer a means of image manipulation, which has
no analogue in other means of publications.
- The SEARCH function offered by various e-L materials is another
important advantage. This is also imperative for MEP, where currently the
specific terms number more than 3,000. This was specially used in the EMITEL
Dictionary and Encyclopedia.
- Finally, the fact that many students from around the world can use the
materials through the guidance of most renowned specialists has no analogue in
the other educational methods and media.
e-L Definitions and Layers of Development
The definitions of e-Learning vary significantly, but perhaps
�� learning that is aided by information and communication technologies��  is
one of the definitions, which is very close to reality. However, some authors
and users define e-L only as �� the delivery of content via all electronic
media, including the internet, intranets, extranets, satellite, broadcast,
video, interactive TV, and CD ROM��. In this case the emphasis is only at
the delivery and many unworthy courses have been �developed� this way � by just
delivery to students of existing files with handouts. This has the only
advantage of reduced cost, but the educational results do not have significant
The authors certainly support the first view/definition �
that e-L should develop materials, which will increase the pedagogical
effectiveness, and then deliver these to students. Only in this case the full
power of e-L can be utilised.
The development of e-L materials can be presented as a
multi-layered process, including the following stages:
- programming specific simulations;
- building of e-L modules;
- development of e-L programmes.
These stages most often exist as separate entities, but
the programmes will include modules, and simulations can be applied at various
�Further below this paper shall present some examples of
various types of e-L materials. It is impossible to list (or even mention) all
existing e-L activities, as this is a very dynamic area and a number of
simulations constantly appear or disappear.
The simulations are a very effective teaching tool.
However, these are very difficult to produce and require good software skills.
Also, development of simulations consumes a lot of time. This often requires
knowledge of several software packs and skills to present the simulation in a
suitable, pedagogical way. One specific problem with simulations is their
relatively short life cycle (often less than 5 years). The main reason for this
is the upgrade of software platform, what in most cases hampers the performance
of the simulation. There is a need for quick dissemination of simulation tools,
which could be made through a regularly updated list of available simulations.
Among the earliest developments in this field include the
Gamma Camera DOS-simulator learning pack (developed some 15 years ago with the
support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); the PowerLab Systems of
AD Instruments; various LabView simulations; the IPEM X-ray Spectrum Processor
software, etc. Other existing simulations are described in the special issue on
e-Learning of JMEP .
Other examples of simulations can be found at the web
sites of some manufacturers and professional societies such as AAPM, IPEM, etc.
However, the profession lacks a comprehensive list of such tools, which would
be of great value for education and training.
e-L Educational Modules
Building e-L educational modules is probably the most
efficient e-L approach. This approach is used in a number of projects and
Universities. In principle, one module could cover either educational or
training needs (or both) and could have a length of several tens of hours (or
days). This allows flexibility by merging the module (or parts of the module)
with other pedagogical activities. In this way, the modules are best suited for
hybrid delivery of education (classical plus e-L). Due to this reason, most e-L
modules include an option for printing the materials.
Most e-L educational modules include only limited
interactivity. Perhaps this is due to two reasons: reduced cost for development
and increased life cycle. However, these include many images, hyperlinked with
text, which increases significantly their educational effectiveness. Also, such
modules are very convenient as e-books. Perhaps this is one of the reasons that
almost all of them work without tools for students� assessment.
e-L modules also allow flexible application at various
levels (radiographers, radiologists, engineers and physicists). An example for
such module is Demystifying Biomedical Signals � a module developed in the Southampton
Some modules include mainly PowerPoint materials and HTML
web pages, but are of extreme importance for the professions. The sets of
presentations of the Sprawls Educational Foundation (www.sprawls.org) and of
the IAEA (web site on Radiological Protection of the Patient) deserve special
mention. The IAEA web site includes materials on Protection in: Radiotherapy,
Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Radiology (with special emphasis on
Interventional Radiology) . These materials (mainly the PowerPoint slides)
have been additionally disseminated on CDs to almost all IAEA member states and
have been widely used for educational/training courses at various levels.
Typical examples for e-L modules are also the EMERALD and
EMIT materials (based on EU projects headed by King�s College London and King�s
College Hospital) [10, 11]. These include five volumes (on five CDs and on web
site). The first three volumes on EMERALD cover Physics and Equipment of X-ray
diagnostic radiology, Nuclear medicine and Radiotherapy. The next two volumes
on EMIT cover Physics and Equipment of Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance
Imaging. These modules are currently used in more than 60 countries, either as
training materials or in University Labs. Each of these original e-L module
incorporates: List of Competencies� (in accordance with the UK�s IPEM Training
scheme);� Structured Timetable (training curricula);� Student Workbook with
practical training tasks; and Image database (to support the practical training
EMERALD and EMIT were the first modules to introduce the
concept of Educational Image databases and e-books. A large demo of the e-books
is available at the web site www.emerald2.eu. The software of the Image
database allows interactive off-line manipulation of images (Figure 1).
e-L Study Programmes
Structuring e-L study programmes is the most complex e-L
activity, however it is not always the most innovative of all. Many
Universities are now transferring their existing classical courses to
web-platforms for Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) like WebCT, Blackboard,
etc. These platforms allow easy online administration of the course, but do not
always provide new updated teaching materials. It is believed that this will
change in future. Good examples are the courses in the University of Adelaide,
Australia and the Vanderbilt University, Nashville, USA [12,13].
Other web-based courses have orientated themselves to the
development of specific web-platforms. This approach is very difficult and
expensive, but allows the inclusion of custom-built materials and simulations
alongside the administration tools of the programme. Attempts in this line have
been made, among others, in the University of Gratz, Austria, and Medical
University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria [14,15]. These programmes are discussed in detail
in the special issue on e-L of JMEP.
A typical feature of these activities is that the
web-based programme can be applied in one University only (usually these are
password-protected with access for local students). Another feature is that
these programmes are difficult to maintain. Normally the web site would require
constant support from a dedicated experienced webmaster. Due to the recent
initiation of a large number of such programmes, an EU project was recently
launched (headed by Ragnar Granit Institute at Tampere University of
Technology, Finland). This project (European Virtual Campus for Biomedical
Engineering - EViCaB)  is related primarily to Medical Engineering, but
could extend (or provide information) also for the Medical Physics programmes.�
Evaluation of e-L Materials
The usefulness of e-L materials has not been disputed, but
these require careful assessment. The first Conference to address e-L in
Medical Physics was held at International Centre for Theoretical Physics
(ICTP), Trieste, during November 2003. Specialists from 26 countries gathered
at this Conference to discuss the EMIT e-L materials and the first feedback
from the users.
Two independent surveys were made at this stage to assess
separate tasks on X-ray Diagnostic Radiology and on Ultrasound Imaging. The
supervisors reported that in both surveys the students felt better prepared
after the e-L task (compared with the classical training) and required less
time to complete the task (in average 20-40% less time, student dependent). The
students also reported 25-35% improvement in their knowledge after using the
e-L tasks, which indicates that the material had been effectively used .
Most of the delegates at this Conference agreed on the
following main issues related to e-L:���
- e-L is not only suitable, but essential for a dynamic profession like
Medical Physics and Engineering;
- e-L increases enormously the effectiveness of knowledge transfer, but needs
to be combined with classical learning � HYBRID learning;
- The software platform is crucial for the life cycle of the e-L products
(sometimes only an upgrade of the software version can hamper the e-L product);
- The e-L development team is multi-professional, requiring good
professional knowledge, pedagogical experience and IT skills;
- Producing e-L content is very difficult and costly;
- e-L development is not less innovative than any other research;
- The efforts to produce e-Learning materials are often underestimated by
students and Universities;
- There is a need of sound multi-professional forum on e-L.
The latest development in e-L is the European Medical
Imaging Technology e-Encyclopaedia for Lifelong Learning (EMITEL) project,
which developed the first e-L multilingual e-Dictionary of Medical Physics and
the first e-Encyclopedia of Medical Physics. This large international project
(headed by King�s College London and King�s College Hospital) includes more
than 90 professionals and the first results (the e-Dictionary) are in very
advanced stage (www.emitdictionary.co.uk). It cross-translates Medical Physics
terms to/from any of its 15 languages and is soon to be updated to more than 20
languages. This activity will allow colleagues from all over the world to use
effectively the existing teaching materials (most of which are in English).
The EMITEL e-Encyclopedia is expected to be launched
during the World Congress of Medical Physics and Bioengineering (Munich, 2009).
It will explain all terms from the Dictionary with articles (including text,
images and diagrams). Its volume is expected to grow up to above 5 GB. A
special Conference will discuss these issues by the end of 2008.
EMITEL is based on the results from the previous e-L
projects EMERALD, EMERALD II and EMIT. A timeline of their development shows
the main stages of these projects (Figure 2). It is clear that the ideas
developed in one project had been carried over in the next one. Similarly
materials from the first projects had been updated incorporated in the last
project EMITEL, thus increasing the efficiency of the e-L production. The
timeline shows the sequence of stages, but can not show the time of their development,
as it varies from approximately 3 to 18 months
e-Learning has already found a steady presence in Medical
Engineering and Physics. A large number of simulations, e-L modules and
web-based programmes have been developed and implemented in practice. Some of
those, such as the AAPM Virtual Library, the IAEA Training materials and web
sites, the EMERALD and EMIT, etc., have reached wide audiences. Many of those
materials are still not known therefore these activities need to be urgently
listed in order to allow effective exchange of knowledge. Some attempts have
been made in this direction � for example, the book Internet for Radiology,
the Global On-Line Medical Physics (GOMP), EMITEL Encyclopedia, several
publications, etc. [18, 19, 20]. However, the effective and wide use of e-L
will be stabilised only if a good and updated list of these materials is
available free for all professionals.
The author expresses gratitude to the EU Leonardo
Programme and the active members of the EMERALD, EMIT and EMERALD Projects
Consortia, listed below:
C Roberts, S Tabakov, C Lewis, C Deane, D Goss,� G Clarke,
V Aitken, A Simmons, S Keevil,� J Coward, C. Deehan, P Evans, D Evans, M Lewis,
S-E Strand, F. Stahlberg, B-A Jonsson, L Jonsson, M Ljungberg, I-L Lamm, R.
Wirestam, M. Almqvist, T Jonsson, E Nordth, M Peterson, F Milano, L Riccardi, L
Bertocchi, A Benini, J Gomes da Silva, N Teixeira, A Pascoal, P Ferreira, N
Sheahan, G Boyle, S Sheriff, A Noel, J-Y Giraud, P Smith, F Nuesslin, A
Cvetkov, M Stoeva, A Litchev, V Tabakova, L Musilek, M Radwanska, P Zarand, P
Sprawls, as well as to all delegates to the related Conferences and all project
contributors and supporters.
Figure 1 Graphical interface (print-screen) of the EMIT Image Database CD-ROM with ThumbPlus! browser - sample from Module Ultrasound Imaging, with some image processing functions.
Figure 2 Timeline of four interlinked e-L projects, showing the progress from the first pilot project (1995) to the e-Encyclopaedia project (to be completed in 2009). The timeline is presented in 3 layers � interim results (most inner layer), final results (middle layer), project development and assessment (Conferences) � most outer layer.
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|Received 30 January 2008; accepted 8 May 2008
Correspondence: Department of Medical Engineering and Physics, King�s College Hospital, London SE5 9RS, United Kingdom. Tel.: +44 20 3299 3536; Fax: +44 20 3299 3536; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (Slavik Tabakov).
Please cite as: Tabakov S,
e-Learning development in medical physics and engineering, Biomed Imaging Interv J 2008; 4(1):e27